In the past, these beads were made from recycled phonograph records and cut up into a sequin-like fashion. I wonder where they got all the records? Today, they come in a rainbow of colors and are also known as vulcanized beads. The beads made from vulcanized rubber with traces of vinyl. Vulcanized rubber is a chemical process to harden rubber. The spacers are made in Czech Republic or Germany and then exported to West Africa.